LAW 511-002 – Torts I

Physical Manifestation


The physical manifestation or physical injury requirement requires the plaintiff to suffer a physical symptom as a result of the distress.

A definite nervous disorder is a physical injury.

The physical manifestation requirement is the majority rule.

The physical manifestation requirement has two well-recognized exceptions:

  1. Death-telegram rule, in a minority of states
  2. Negligent interference with dead bodies