LAW 511-002 – Torts I
A bystander is someone who is:
- is closely related to the injury victim;
- is present at the scene of the injury-producing event at the time it occurs and is then aware that it is causing injury to the victim; and
- as a result suffers serious emotional distress—a reaction beyond that which would be anticipated in a disinterested witness and which is not an abnormal response to the circumstances.