Criminal Procedure


Dogs can be used to search during a lawful traffic stop without it constituting a search under the Fourth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States because there is no reasonable expectation of privacy in the smells that one gives off.

A dog alerting during a search gives an officer probable cause.

Dogs being used within the curtilage of one's home is a search however because, even if though people generally have a license to enter premises for certain purposes like going up to the front door, bringing dogs to sniff is exceeding the police's license to enter and is therefore a trespass.