Constitutional Law I


Since Congress established the lower federal courts, they can impliedly limit their scope of cases hearable.

Congress may limit the Supreme Court's appellate jurisdiction under Article II § 2 as long as it does not interfere with the court's essential function.

The essential function of the federal courts is to decide federal questions on appeal.

There is a right to appeal federal question cases to the Supreme Court, but not state law cases.

Story believed that federal question cases just had to be hearable in some federal court.

Congress cannot change the outcome of court cases directly, but only the underlying substantive law.