Civil Procedure I
Minimum contacts rule:
- Due process requires that if a defendant is not physically present in a forum state that they have certain "minimum contacts" with the state such that the maintenance of the suit does not offend traditional notions of "fair play and substantial justice." International Shoe.
- Contacts must be continuous and systematic, not irregular or casual. International Shoe.
- Sliding scale test of relatedness of contacts within the forum state to the action. International Shoe.
- "Benefits and Burdens" – If they enjoyed benefits of state, they must accept the burdens. International Shoe.
- It is essential that the defendant "purposefully avails" himself of the privilege of conducting activities in the forum state, thus invoking the benefits and protections of the forum state. Denckla.
- Is the conduct of the defendant and his connection to state such that the defendant reasonably anticipates being haled into forum court? World-Wide Volkswagen.
- Foreseeability alone is not enough for personal jurisdiction. World-Wide Volkswagen.
- Contacts must be be the result of defendant's purposeful availment. Others' like unilateral contacts of the plaintiff do not count as contacts for the defendant. World-Wide Volkswagen.
Minimum contacts rule based on:
- Protecting defendant from burden of litigating in distant court
- Keeping state from going beyond its limits as a one sovereign in system of sovereigns.