"The Court has said only that where a general regulatory statute bears a substantial relation to commerce, the de minimis character of individual instances arising under that statute is of no consequence."
Consistent with this structure, we have identified three broad categories of activity that Congress may regulate under its commerce power.
- First, Congress may regulate the use of the channels of interstate commerce.
- Second, Congress is empowered to regulate and protect the instrumentalities of interstate commerce, or persons or things in interstate commerce, even though the threat may come only from intrastate activities.
- Finally, Congress' commerce authority includes the power to regulate those activities having a substantial relation to interstate commerce.