[T]he irreducible constitutional minimum of standing contains three elements.
- First, the plaintiff must have suffered an "injury in fact"—an invasion of a legally protected interest which is
- concrete and particularized; and
- "actual or imminent, not 'conjectural' or 'hypothetical.'"
- Second, there must be a causal connection between the injury and the conduct complained of—the injury has to be "fairly. . . trace[able] to the challenged action of the defendant, and not . . . th[e] result [of] the independent action of some third party not before the court."
- Third, it must be "likely," as opposed to merely "speculative," that the injury will be "redressed by a favorable decision."