A party's representation of a nonparty is "adequate" for preclusion purposes only if, at a minimum:
- The interests of the nonparty and her representative are aligned; and
- either the party understood herself to be acting in a representative capacity or the original court took care to protect the interests of the nonparty. In addition, adequate representation sometimes requires
- notice of the original suit to the persons alleged to have been represented. In the class-action context, these limitations are implemented by the procedural safeguards contained in Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 23.